2018-06-15 13:00

事实上,比较是不可能不存在的,因为它是人性的一个主要部分。任何存在并可以被思考的事物都有可能被比较。Swansen(1971: 145)指出“没有比较的思考是不可想象的,所有的科学思想和科学研究都是不可想象的。”当“比较方法”一词在一般意义上使用时,它是社会科学方法论领域的一个重要属性。一般来说,我们可以假定所有的社会科学方法都是比较的。然而,在社会学领域,这一术语更多地局限于对不同社会的明确研究和比较;为了确定社会的相似和不同的属性,在这一领域的一些研究已经发展了多年的立场,这一领域的调查没有独特性。一个这样的研究人员是斯库尔斯(1976),他指出,比较和非比较研究人员没有发现单独的目标,因为他们都描述了社会趋势,通过对这些趋势中出现的情况和案例的变化产生限制。然而,Ragin(1989)坚持认为,比较方法是一个独特的领域,因为它可以被描述为具有高度概念的非比喻的社会概念具有一种不偏离的经验功能。在此基础上,Ragin指出,这就是区分比较主义者和非比较主义者的原因。因此可能认为的比较方法,涉及到一个社会的研究和比较它不止一个案例(社会)根据他们的社会因素,如文化、政治,等等,并确定他们的相同点和不同点,将他们在社会现象存在的原因分析。
Virtually it is impossible for comparison not to exist, since it is a major part of human nature. Anything that exists and can be thought about has the potential to be compared. Swansen (1971: 145) stated that "THINKING WITHOUT comparison is unthinkable, so is all scientific thought and scientific research." When the term "comparative approach" is used in the general sense it is a vital attribute in the field of social scientific methodology. In the general sense it may be assumed that all social scientific methods are comparative. However, in the field of sociology the term is more restricted to the explicit study and comparison of different societies; in an effort to determine the alike and different attributes of the societies, some researches in this field of study have developed the position over the years that there is no uniqueness about this field of inquiry. One such researcher is Smelser (1976) who indicated that there is no separate goal recognised by comparative and non comparative researcher because they both describe societal trends by creating limitations over situations and case variants that occur in those trends. Ragin (1989), however, maintained that the comparative approach is a distinctive field because it can be characterised as having an undeviating experiential functioning of the nonfigurative notion of society that has a high level of notions. Based on this, Ragin stated that this is what differentiates compartivists and non- comparativits. Therefore it may be assumed that the comparative approach involves the studying of one society and comparing it to more than one case (society) based on their societal factors such as culture, politics, etc., and determining their similarities and differences and attributing them to why phenomenon exists in the society being analysed.