2017-05-03 00:22

这是atweh等人一样。(2005)、Smyth和Hannan(2006)对4000个爱尔兰学生研究和发现提供题材广泛,可以促进学生的主体选择。然而,Smyth和Hannan宣称有其他跨国家的背景下,对主体的选择也具有一定的共性关键差异的学生。首先,性别差异在爱尔兰的科学,其中大部分是由男孩选择的生物,而生物学的女孩也被认为是性别中立的化学学科。其次,科学学科选择是基于学生的不同能力水平和背景,因为男孩被认为是化学,物理和生物学,而女孩选择任何科学科目作为一个选择组的不平等的高能力和专业背景。第三,科学学科的选择依赖于学生对学科的感知,是否认为它是有趣的或无趣的。第四,对学科领域的限制,只有生物提供高中证书的考试,而其他欧洲国家和美国提供的生物、化学和物理。最后,学校结构也可以塑造学生的主体选择在系统的纵向过程从低级中学水平(史密斯和汉南,2006)。同样的,根据一项研究,对100名巴基斯坦高中理科学生的学习态度、科学的认知科学家,他们的意见对主修科学,Iqbala,Shahzada和Sohail(2010)发现高中女学生喜欢数学超过男学生。此外,女性计划在大学主修科学,特别是在生物科学领域。此外,iqbala等人。建议女性学生要像男性那样教授科学科目,这样科学就不再是男性主导领域。作者的结论是利益而不是能力,性别或自我概念的影响​​巴基斯坦学生在选择专业时(iqbala et al.,2010)。
It is the same as Atweh et al. (2005), Smyth and Hannan (2006) conducted a study on 4,000 Irish students and found that providing wide-range of subjects could facilitate students' subject-choice selection. However, Smyth and Hannan asserted that there were commonalities with other cross-national contexts about subject choices made by students but also certain key differences. First, gender differences in taking science in Ireland where Physics was mostly chosen by boys while Biology was taken by girls were also considered as gender neutral for Chemistry subject. Second, scientific subject choice was based on students' different ability levels and backgrounds as it was seen that boys took Chemistry, Physics and Biology while girls chose any science subjects as a selective group with the inequality of high abilities and from professional backgrounds. Third, the selection of science subjects depended on students' perception of the subject whether they saw it as interesting or uninteresting. Forth, for the limitation of science subject areas, there was only Biology provided for upper secondary level for the certificate exams whereas other European countries and the United Sates provided Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Finally, school structures could also shape students' subject choices within the systematically longitudinal process from lower secondary to upper secondary levels (Smyth & Hannan, 2006).Likewise, according to a study on 100 Pakistani high-school students' attitude towards Science subjects, perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science,Iqbala, Shahzada, and Sohail (2010) found that high-school female students liked mathematics more than male students. Additionally, the females planned to take a major in science in college, especially in the areas of biological sciences. Furthermore, Iqbala et al. suggested that female students needed to be taught scientific subjects as males did, so that science was no more a male dominant area. The authors concluded that interest rather than ability, gender or self​​concept influenced on Pakistani students when choosing a major (Iqbala et al., 2010).
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