2017-03-11 01:25

很明显,从这篇文章中,Foucalt的概念,相称的病人,第十九世纪晚期,已经失去了对自己身体的控制,医学的话语。第一次成功的输血是在1818 James Blundell进行,然而围绕德古拉伯爵的创作和出版的周期是一个财富关于芽孢杆菌分离和传染病如疟疾、白喉引起医学的进步(杜博斯,1959)。医生和科学家,那么,在这一时期成为人不仅治愈但Van海辛显示,人就生病。这一点也是由致命的职业Jani Scandura:德古拉伯爵,承办人和防腐处理的尸体(1996): “维护医学的卓越操纵尸体,在吸血鬼试图维持他们的医生的类层次结构。小说以一个更矛盾的位置。德古拉伯爵的生活之间,直接与防腐尸体和医生的科学任务,Stoker不允许任何阶级”甚至成立专业本质”的可能性。”(斯坎杜拉,1996:17) 我们还可以注意到一个明显的宣言医学科学话语和不死族的Stoker的概念的概念之间的比价,尤其是在小说的最后阶段Mina相关,经常指自己“不洁”(斯托克,1994:339)。一些看不见的她的感染,只有知道它的全部,Van Helsing医生,是科学知识周围的细菌感染,同时出现高反射也可以说概念的疯狂与西沃德博士和佛洛伊德和布鲁尔的歇斯底里研究出版(2004)两年前。


It is obvious from this passage that, commensurate with Foucalt’s notions, the patient, by the late nineteenth century, had lost control over their own body to the discourse of medical science. The first successful blood transfusion was carried out by James Blundell in 1818, however surrounding the period of Dracula’s creation and publication were a wealth of medical advances concerning the isolation of bacillus and the causes of infectious diseases such as malaria and diphtheria (Dubos, 1959). The doctor and scientist, then, in this period becomes someone who not only cures but, as Van Helsing shows, someone who enunciates illness. This is a point made also by Jani Scandura in Deadly Professions: Dracula, Undertakers and the Embalmed Corpse (1996):

“In asserting the preeminence of medicine in manipulating the corpse, the doctors in Dracula attempt to maintain class hierarchies as they are. The novel takes a more ambivalent position. Making direct parallels between Dracula's live embalming of bodies and the scientific tasks of the doctors, Stoker disallows the possibility of any class-bound "essence" even for established professionals.” (Scandura, 1996: 17)

We can also note parity between the notion of a distinct and enunciative medico-scientific discourse and Stoker’s concept of the undead, especially as related to Mina in the closing stages of the novel, who constantly refers to herself as “unclean” (Stoker, 1994: 339). The infection of her system with something unseen, something only known, in its entirety, by Van Helsing the doctor, is highly reflective of the emergence of scientific knowledge surrounding bacteria and infection and the same also could be said for notions of madness as it relates to Dr Seward and the publication of Freud and Breuer’s Studies in Hysteria (2004) two years earlier.